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Principal Upanishads

  1. Kena

  2. Katha

  3. Prasna

  4. Taittiriya

  5. Mundaka

  6. Aitareya

  7. Isavasya

  8. Maitrayani

  9. Mandukya

  10. Chandogya

  11. Svetasvatara

  12. Brihadaranyaka

  13. Kaushitaki-Brahmana

Minor Upanishads

  1. Sita

  2. Atma

  3. Maha

  4. Akshi

  5. Aruni

  6. Surya

  7. Jabala

  8. Savitri

  9. Subala

  10. Varaha

  11. Garbha

  12. Skanda

  13. Tripura

  14. Brahma

  15. Kundika

  16. Muktika

  17. Nirvana

  18. Mudgala

  19. Kaivalya

  20. Paingala

  21. Sariraka

  22. Mantrika

  23. Maitreya

  24. Sannyasa

  25. Avadhuta

  26. Bahvricha

  27. Niralamba

  28. Bhikshuka

  29. Adhyatma

  30. Tejo-Bindu

  31. Annapurna

  32. Katharudra

  33. Sarva-Sara

  34. Nada-Bindu

  35. Yajnavalkya

  36. Atma-Bodha

  37. Satyayaniya

  38. Vajrasuchika

  39. Yoga-Tattva

  40. Amrita-Bindu

  41. Para-Brahma

  42. Paramahamsa

  43. Kali-Santarana

  44. Maha-Narayana

  45. Narada-Parivrajaka

  46. Turiyatita-Avadhuta

  47. Paramahamsa-Parivrajaka

Sarva-Sara Upanishad

Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).

Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

   1. Om. What is Bandha (bondage of the Soul) ? What is Moksha (liberation) ? What is Avidya (nescience) ? What is Vidya (knowledge) ? What are the states of Jagrat (waking), Svapna (dreaming) , Sushupti (Dreamless sleep), and the fourth, Turiya (Absolute) ? What are the Annamaya, Pranamaya, Manomaya, Vijnanamaya and Anandamaya Koshas (vestures or sheaths of the soul) ?

What is the Karta (agent), what the Jiva (individual self), the Kshetrajna (knower of the body), the Sakshi (Witness), the Kutastha, the Antaryamin (Internal Ruler) ? What is the Pratyagatman (Inner Self), what the Paramatman (Supreme Self), the Atman, and also Maya ? -- the master of Self looks upon the body and such like things other than the Self as Itself: this egoism is the bondage of the soul. The cessation of that (egoism) is Moksha, liberation. That which causes that egoism is Avidya, nescience.

That by which this egoism is completely turned back is Vidya, knowledge. When the self, by means of its four and ten organs of sense beginning with the mind and benignly influenced by the sun and the rest which appear outside, perceives gross objects such as sound etc., then it is the Atman’s Jagrat (wakeful) state. When, even in the absence of sound etc., (the self) not divested of desire for them, experiences, by means of the four organs, sound and the rest in the form of desires – then it is the Atman’s state of Svapna (dream). When the four and ten organs cease from activity, and there is the absence of differentiated knowledge, then is the Atman’s state of Sushupti (dreamless sleep).

   2. When the essence of consciousness which manifests itself as the three states, is a witness of the states, (but is) itself devoid of states, positive or negative, and remains in the state of non-separation and oneness, then it is spoken of as the Turiya, the fourth. The aggregate of the six sheaths, which are the products of food, is called the Annamaya-kosha, alimentary sheath. When the fourteen kinds of Vayus beginning with the Prana, are in the alimentary sheath, then it is spoken of as the Pranamaya-kosha, vesture of the vital airs. When the Atman united with these two sheaths performs, by means of the four organs beginning with the mind, the functions of desire, etc., which have for their objects sound and the rest, then it (this state) is called the Manomaya-kosha, mental sheath.

When the soul shines being united with these three sheaths, and cognisant of the differences and non-differences thereof then it is called the Vijnanamaya-kosha, sheath of intelligence. When these four sheaths remain in their own cause which is Knowledge (Brahman), in the same way as the latent Banyan tree remains in the Banyan seed, then it is spoken of as the Anandamaya-kosha, causal frame of the Soul. When it dwells in the body, as the seat of the idea of pleasure and pain, then it is the Karta, agent. The idea of pleasure is that which pertains to wished-for objects, and the idea of pain is that which pertains to undesirable objects. Sound, touch, sight, taste, and smell are the causes of pleasure and pain.

When the soul, conforming itself to good and bad actions, has made a link of the present body (with its past body), and is seen to be effecting a union, a connection as it were, with the body not yet received, then it is called the Jiva, individual soul, on account of its being limited by Upadhis. The five groups are those beginning with the mind, those beginning with the Prana, those beginning with the Sattva, those beginning with the will, and those beginning with merit. The ego possessing the attributes of these five groups, does not die out without the knowledge of the ever-attained Self. That which, owing to its proximity to the Self, appears as imperishable and is attributed to Atman, is called the Linga-sharira (subtle body), and the “heart’s knot”. The Consciousness which manifests itself therein is called the Kshetrajna, Knower of the Kshetra (body).

   3. He who is the cogniser of the manifestation and disappearance of the knower, knowledge, and the knowable, but is himself devoid of such manifestation and disappearance, and is self-luminous, is called the Sakshi, Witness. When being perceived in an undifferentiated manner in the intelligence of all beings, from Brahma (the Creator) down to an ant, it resides in the intelligence of all beings, then it is called the Kutastha.

When, standing as the means of realising the real nature of the Kutastha and others, which are differentiations by virtue of possessing limiting adjuncts, the Atman manifests itself as inter-woven in all bodies, like the thread through a string of jewels, then it is called the Antaryamin, Internal Ruler. When the Atman shines forth - absolutely free from all limiting adjuncts, brilliant, as a homogeneous mass of consciousness in its nature of pure Intelligence, independent – then, it is spoken of as the Entity of “Thou” (Tvam), and as the Pratyagatman, Inner-Self. (That which is) Satya (the Reality), Jnana (Knowledge), Ananta (the Infinite), Ananda (Bliss), is Brahman. The Reality is the indestructible; That which, when name, space, time, substance, and causation are destroyed, dies not, is the indestructible; and that is called Satya, the Reality. And Jnana – that essence of Intelligence which has no beginning and no end, spoken of as Jnana.

   4. And Ananta, the Infinite, (remaining in the same manner) as (does) clay in modifications of clay, as gold in modifications of gold, as thread in fabrics of thread, the antecedent, all-pervading Consciousness, that is in all phenomena of creation beginning with the Unmanifested, is called the Infinite. And Ananda, Bliss – the essence of the consciousness of happiness, the ocean of measureless bliss, and the state of undifferentiated happiness is called Bliss. That, of which the above fourfold nature is an indication, and which is permanent in all space, time, substance, and causation, is called the Entity of “That” (Tat) Paramatman, Supreme Self, and Para-Brahman, or the Highest Brahman.

Distinguished from the Entity of “Thou” (when it appears to be) possessed of attributes, as well as from the Entity of “That” (when it appears to be) possessed of attributes, that which is all-pervading like the sky, subtle, whole by itself, pure Existence, the Entity of “Art” (Asi). Self-luminous, is spoken of as the Atman; the Entity of “not-That”, also is spoken of as Atman. That which is beginningless, fruitful, open to both proof and disproof, neither real nor unreal, nor real-unreal – non-existent, when, because of the immutability of its own substratum, the cause of change is ascertained; -- existent when it is not so ascertained – (thus that) which is undefinable, is called Maya.

   5. I am neither the body nor the ten senses, Buddhi, Mind, Ego. Without Prana and mind, pure, I am always the witness, pure consciousness, surely. I am neither the doer nor the enjoyer, only a witness to Prakriti. By my presence body etc., function as alive, still, eternal, ever joy, pure. I am Brahman to be known from all Vedanta, yet unknowable like sky and air. I am neither form nor action, only Brahman.

   6. I am not body; birth, death do not come to me. I am not Prana – have no hunger and thirst; I am not mind – have no grief or delusion. I am not the doer – have no bondage or release.

Om ! May He protect us both together; may He nourish us both together; May we work conjointly with great energy, May our study be vigorous and effective; May we not mutually dispute (or may we not hate any).

Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !

Here ends the Sarva-Sara Upanishad, as contained in the Krishna-Yajur-Veda.

Translated by Swami Madhavananda
Published by Advaita Ashram, Kolkatta