Om ! O Devas, may we hear
with our ears what is auspicious; May we see with our eyes what is
auspicious, O ye worthy of worship ! May we enjoy the term of life
allotted by the Devas, Praising them with our body and limbs steady !
May the glorious Indra bless us ! May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May
Garuda, the thunderbolt for evil, bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us
well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace in me ! Let there be Peace in my
environment ! Let there be Peace in the forces that act on me !
I-1-2. The king of Yogins, Nidagha, prostrated flat
(like a rod) before Ribhu, that pre-eminent knower of Brahman. Then,
rising, that ascetic respectfully said, ‘Teach me the truth about the
Self; by what kind of adoration have you, Oh Brahmana, attained this
I-3-4. Teach me that grand science which yields sovereignty over the
empire of emancipation. ‘You have done well, Nidagha ! Listen to the
eternal science by the knowledge of which alone will you be liberated
life. Lodged in Om that envelopes the Root of phenomena (Brahman),
supporting the syllable ‘aim’,
I-5-7. ‘Eternal bliss, independent (‘hrim’), renowned, with streaming
stresses (‘sauh’), the ruler of the world (‘srim’), Mahalakshmi, (at
once) desire (‘klim’), fulfilment, and humanity, is the divine
Annapurna. ‘I begged of Her, using the celebrated and quintessential
incantation of 27 syllables, cultivated by hosts of female ascetics,
I-8. ‘Namely, aim, hrim, sauh, srim, klim, aum namo
bhagavatyannapurne mamabhilashitam annam dehi Svaha. [Salutation, O
divine Annapurna, vouchsafe the food I desire]: ‘Thus have I been
instructed by my father. From then on have I established myself in
(this) discipline, persisting in the activities of my station (in life)
and have given myself up to the daily practice of this incantation.
I-9. ‘When many days passed thus, there appeared in front of me
Annapurna, wide-eyed, her lotus-face beaming with a smile.
I-10. ‘Seeing her, I prostrated flat on the ground, and (then) stood
up with folded hands. “Well, child, you have done well; ask of me a
boon, delay not.”
I-11. Oh (Nidagha), best of sages ! Thus hidden by the wide-eyed
(deity) I spoke: ‘O Daughter of the mountain, may the truth of the Self
dawn on my mind’.
I-12. Saying ‘be it so’ she vanished, then and there. Then, through
the perception of the world’s variety the idea (mati) arose in me.
I-13. Delusion appears five-fold; it will be presently set forth. Due
to the first delusion, Jiva and God appear to have different forms.
I-14. Due to the second, the attribute of agency dwelling in the Self
appears to be real. The third (consists in) deeming the Jiva associated
with the three bodies as having attachment.
I-15. The fourth takes the world-cause (God) to be mutable. The fifth
delusion ascribes reality to the world as distinguished from its cause.
Then, also, in the mind flashes the cessation of the five-fold delusion.
I-16. From that moment, spontaneously, my mind was assimilated to
Brahman. O Nidagha, thus may you, too, secure knowledge of reality.
I-17. With humility and respect (Nidagha spoke to Ribhu: impart to
me, having faith (in you), the peerless science of Brahman.
I-18. Gratified, Ribhu said: ‘so be it’. I shall impart to you the
knowledge of reality, O sinless one. Be a mighty agent, ardent enjoyer,
and a great renouncer. Having this investigated your own real nature, be
I-19. ‘I am Brahman, ever manifest, pure, first, endless; there is no
room for the slightest dallying with aught else’ – thus think, having
become blemishless; achieve Nirvana (permanent peace) having purified
and quietened all movements of the mind.
I-20. Know that none of the things seen here is there; it is all like
‘the city in the sky’ and ‘water in the desert’.
I-21. On the other hand, what is nowhere seen, at all, is not given
(as an object); beyond the range of the sixth sense, mind, O sage --
assimilate yourself to That.
I-22. Grasp: I am That which is the indestructible, infinite, Spirit,
the Self of everything, integral, replete, abundant and partless.
I-23. Due to the absolute contemplation of absence (or nihil), when
the mind dwindles, there results the state of the being-in-general
(satta-samanya), of that whose essence is unqualified consciousness.
I-24. Surely, devoid of all objective tinge, when consciousness
(chit) subsides, there supervenes the exceedingly transparent
being-in-general that resembles non-being.
I-25. For the liberated Self, both embodied and disembodied, surely
there occurs this ultimate perception known as the state-beyond-the
I-26. O sinless one, this occurs in the case of the knower both when
he has risen from Concentration (Samadhi) and when he is established in
it; being born of awareness, this does not happen for the ignorant
I-27. All waverings between states of reasoning, etc., having
vanished long since, his face steeped in the lovely light of Brahmic
bliss, (the sage) attains the blessed state through right knowledge
I-28. The inner cool (calm repose) of him who perceives this
multitude of gunas as non-Self is said to be Concentration.
I-29. The steady mind is empty of latent impulses; the same is (the
state of) contemplation. The same also is Aloneness. Besides, it is
nothing but perpetual quiescence.
I-30. The mind with attenuated latent impulses is said to be bound
for the highest state. Next, the mind, without such impulses, attains
the status of the non-doer.
I-31. On the other hand, the mind’s imagination of being the doer is
replete with latent impulses; it causes all sufferings; therefore
attenuated latent impulses.
I-32. When the imagination of unity with all objects is mentally
discarded, due to its constant introverted state, all things are
resolved into empty space.
I-33. As crowds in a market, though active, are as good as
non-existent (to the observer) when he is not related (to them), so too,
to the knower is a village like unto a forest.
I-34. Being inwardly withdrawn, the knower, either asleep, awake,
walking or reading, beholds a city, country-side, or village as if it
were no other than a forest (i.e. with total disinterestedness).
I-35. Once the inner cool is won, the world is cool. To those
scorched by the inner thirst, the world is afire.
I-36. For all (unliberated) beings what is within is projected
I-37. But the lover of the inner Self, though operating through the
organs of action, is unaffected by joy and sorrow; he is said to be
I-38. He who, as a matter of course and not through fear, beholds all
beings as one’s own Self and others’ possessions as clods of earth,
alone sees aright.
I-39. Let death come now or at the end of cycles; he remains
unblemished as gold (fallen) in mire.
I-40. Consider in your mind: who am I ? How is all this (brought
about) ? How do death and birth (happen) ? Thus (considering) will you
earn the great benefit (of investigation).
I-41. Your mind will shed its (discursive) form and quietly win
repose, once, through investigation, you comprehend your real nature.
I-42. O Brahmin, your mind, cured of its feverishness, no more sinks
in empirical activities, as an elephant does not, in the hollow made by
a cow’s hoof.
I-43. But a petty mind, O Brahmin, does sink in any petty affair,
just as a battered mosquito does, in the water collected in the hollow
made by a cow’s hoof.
I-44. O best of ascetics, to the extent all objects are readily
renounced, the supreme Self, the transcendent light, alone remains.
I-45. So long as all objects are not renounced, the Self is not won.
What remains after the renunciation of the entire objective manifold is
said to be the Self.
I-46. Therefore, in order to realize the Self, renounce everything.
Having cast off all (objects), assimilate yourself to that which
I-47. Whatever object is beheld in the world around is but the
vibration of Consciousness, it is nothing permanent.
I-48. O Brahmin, by the term Samadhi (Concentration) the wise denote
transcendent understanding that is concentrated, eternally appeased, and
is cognisant of things as they are.
I-49. The term Concentration denotes the stable, mountain-like,
status (of the self) that is unagitated, unegoistic, and unrelated to
I-50. O Brahmin, it denotes the perfected flow of the mind that is
sure, choiceless and goalless.
I-51. The best of the knowers of the Vedas, the great ones, win that
fourth and stable perception that is fashioned solely through a part of
the light of the Spirit.
I-52. (It is) lodged in the heart of all things and not altogether
unlike dreamless slumber, when the mind and the ego subside.
I-53. After liquidating the mind with the mind, that state – that
supremely divine bliss-body – is automatically won.
I-54. Thence follows the obliteration of all cravings for objects;
then dawns the auspicious and superbly splendid light, and then, in the
case of the very best, due to the sway of even-mindness (takes place)
the ineffable transformation into the Self’s substance.
I-55. Directly experienced indeed as the God of gods and Self of all
entities, moving and stationary is this total and infinite reality of
the Self, dwelling in the fast-evolving mind that is quietened
I-56. The unattached, steady, and controlled mind is not in evidence
in the worldings; the attached mind, though subjected to long-drawn
austerities is, as it were, altogether bound.
I-57. The man free from inner clingings, whose mind dwells on the
blissful (Brahman) may or may not act externally; never can he be either
agent or experiencer.
II-1. Nidagha: What is attachment like ? What kind
of it leads to human bondage ? And what kind of it is said to liberate ?
How is this (attachment) cured ?
II-2. (Ribhu): Imagination, ignoring wholly the distinction between
the body and the embodied (Self) – the exclusive faith in the body – is
the attachment that is said to bind.
II-3. All this is Self: what shall I seek here and what avoid ? Know
this to be the position of non-attachment that the Jivanmukta fosters.
II-4. I am not; none, other than me, is; neither this nor the
non-other exists. This (attitude) is said to be non-attachment, always
maintaining, ‘I am Brahman’.
II-5. He does not approve of inactivity; neither does he cling to
activities. He, the renouncer, is the superbly equable (in outlook); he
is said to be the non-attached.
II-6. One who mentally, and not in the concrete act alone, renounces
fruits, etc., of all his activities – that adept is said to be
II-7. Imaginations and the manifold activities issuing (therefrom)
are cured, here, by non-indulgence in imagination; thus promote
II-8-9. The mind that clings not to acts, thoughts, and things, to
wanderings and reckonings of time, but reposes in Consciousness alone,
finding no delight anywhere, even when turned toward some objects,
revels in the Self.
II-10. Let him perform or not all this empirical activity; doing or
non-doing, his true occupation is Self-delight.
II-11. Or, giving up even that objective element, as stabilised
Consciousness, the tranquillised Jiva abides in the Self like a radiant
II-12. The quiescent state of the attenuated mind, free from all
objective reference, is said to be the deep sleep in wakefulness.
II-13. This state of slumber, O Nidagha, fully developed through
practice, is styled the Fourth by the best knowers of Truth.
II-14. Having attained the indestructible status in this fourth
stage, one reaches a non-blissful poise (as it were), its nature being
II-15. Thence lifted above all relativities, like non-bliss and great
bliss, the time-less Yogin, reaching the state beyond the fourth, is
said to be liberated.
II-16. With all bonds of birth loosened, and all Tamasic conceits
dissolved, the great sage (abides) as the blissful being of the supreme
Self like a salt-crystal in water.
II-17. That which is the trans-empirical and experiential reality,
present in the (contrasted) perceptions of the material and the
conscious, is the essence; Brahman is said to be that.
II-18(a). Bondage is encompassed by the object; on release from this,
liberation is said to supervene.
II-18(b)-19. Resting in that unvexed experience, discriminated in the
link between the substance and perception, abide you; thus one attains
the (peace) of deep sleep. That develops into the Fourth; station your
gaze on That.
II-20. The Self is neither gross nor subtle; neither manifest nor
hidden; neither spiritual nor material; neither non-being nor being.
II-21. That non-dual indestructible one which has become the object,
the ground of mind and all sense-organs, is neither ‘I’ nor another;
neither one nor many.
II-22. That real joy (experienced) in the relation between the object
and perception is the transcendental state; therefore it is, as it were,
nothing (in itself).
II-23. Liberation is not on the top of the sky; not in the nether
world; not on the earth. The dwindling of mind in which all desires dry
up is held to be liberation.
II-24. With the thought, within, ‘let me have liberation’ the mind
springs up; this worldly bondage is firm in the mind agitated with
II-25. The mere non-cleansing of the mind reduces it to a state of
prodigious transmigration; its cleansing alone, on the other hand, is
said to be liberation.
II-26. What is bondage and what is liberation in respect of the Self
that transcends all things or that pervades all forms ? Think freely.
II-27. Loving the Spirit, lifted above all hopes, full, holy in mind,
having won the incomparable state of repose, he seeks nothing here.
II-28. He is called the Jivanmukta (Liberated in life) who lives,
unattached, in the pure Being that sustains all, the indubitable Spirit
that is the Self.
II-29. He craves not for what is yet to be; he does not bank on the
present; he remembers not the past; yet he does all work.
II-30. Ever unattached to those who cling to him; devoted to the
devotees; he is harsh, as it were, to the harsh.
II-31. A child amidst children; adult amidst adults; bold amidst the
bold; a youth amidst the youthful; lamenting amidst those who lament;
II-32. Steadfast, blissful, polished, of holy speech, wise, simple
and sweet; never given to self-pity;
II-33. Through discipline, when the throb of vital breaths ceases,
the mind is wholly dissolved; the impersonal bliss (Nirvana) remains;
II-34. Whence all discursive speech turns back. With the obliteration
of all of one’s mental constructions that (Brahmic) status abides.
II-35. Here is the supreme Self whose essence is the light of
Consciousness without beginning or end; the wise hold this luminous
certitude to be the right knowledge.
II-36. The plenitude due to the knowledge ‘all the world is Self
alone’ is the right measure of Self-realization everywhere in the world.
II-37. All is Self alone; what are the (empirical) states being and
non-being ? Where have they fled ? Where are those notions of bondage
and liberation ? What stands out is Brahman alone.
II-38. All is the one supreme Sky. What is liberation ? What is
bondage ? This is the great Brahman, established mightily, with extended
form; duality has vanished far from It; be you, yourself, the Self
II-39. When the form of a stock, stone and cloth is seen aright,
there is not even a shadow of difference; bent on imagination (of
differences) where are you ?
II-40. This imperishable and tranquil essence, (present) at the
beginning and end of things and yourself, always be That.
II-41. With mental distinctions of duality and non-duality and
delusions of old age and death, the Self alone shines in its phases
(atmabhih) just as the sea, in its (phases of) waves.
II-42. What enjoyment of the desired (fruits) can disturb him, who
dwells steadfast, ever wedded, in thought, to the pure Self that fells
the tree of dangers, to the status of bliss supreme ?
II-43. Mental enjoyments are the foes of one who has thought
extensively; they move him not in the least just as gentle breezes move
not a hill at all.
II-44. ‘Plurality exists in diverse imaginings, not really, within;
just as there is nothing but water in a lake’ – a man filled with this
one certitude is said to be liberated; he who has perceived the Real.
III-1. (Nidagha): What is the nature of liberation
without the body ? Who is the great sage in possession of it ? Resorting
to which Yoga has he achieved that supreme status ?
III-2. Ribhu: In the region of Sumeru the celebrated sage Mandavya
resorting to Truth (imparted by) Kaundinya became liberated in life.
III-3. Having attained the status of Jivanmukti, that foremost knower
of Brahman, that great sage, made up his mind, once upon a time, to
withdraw all his sense-organs (from their respective objects).
III-4. He sat in the lotus-posture, with eyes half-closed, slowly
avoiding contacts (with objects), external and internal.
III-5. Then he, with his sinless mind, (reflected on) the (degree of)
steadiness of his mind: ‘clearly, though withdrawn, this mind of mine is
III-6. It wanders from a cloth to a pot and thence to a big cart. The
mind wanders among objects as a monkey does from tree to tree.
III-7. The five openings, eyes and so forth, known as the sense
organs of cognition, I am watching carefully with my mind.
III-8. O you sense-organs ! Slowly give up your mood of agitation.
Here I am, the divine spiritual Self, the witness of all.
III-9. With that all-knowing Self, I have comprehended (the nature
of) eyes, etc. I am
completely secure and at peace. Luckily I am fearless.
III-10. Incessantly I rest in my Self, the Fourth; my vital breaths,
its extensions, have all, in due order, subsided within.
III-11. (I am) as a fire with its multitudinous flames, when the fuel
has been consumed; it blazed forth but now is extinguished – the blazing
fire has, indeed, been extinguished.
III-12. Having been purified utterly, I remain equable, enjoying all
alike, as it were. I am awake though in deep sleep; though in deep
sleep, I am awake.
III-13-14. Resorting to the Fourth, I remain within the body with a
stable status, having abandoned, together with the long thread of sound
reaching upto OM, objects in all the three worlds fashioned by
III-15. As a bird, for flying in the sky, leaves the net (in which it
was enmeshed), the great sage sheds (his) identification with the
sense-organs; then (he sheds) his awareness of limbs which has become
III-16. He has won the knowledge of a new-born infant; as if the air
should give up its power to vibrate, he has terminated the proneness of
consciousness to attach itself to objects.
III-17. Then, attaining the unqualified state of Consciousness – the
state of pure Being –resorting, (as it were), to the state of dreamless
slumber, he has stayed immovable like a mountain.
III-18. Winning the stability of dreamless sleep he has attained the
Fourth; though gone beyond bliss, (he is) still blissful; he has become
both being and non-being.
III-19. Then he becomes that which is beyond even the range of words
which is the nihil of the nihilist and Brahman of the knowers of
III-20. Which is the pure blemishless cognition of the knowers of
cognition, the Purusha of the Sankhyas and Ishvara of the Yogins;
III-21. The Shiva of the Shivagamas; the Time of those who affirm
Time alone (as the basic principle); the final doctrine of all Shastras,
and what conforms to every heart;
III-22. Which is the All, the all-pervading Reality, the Truth. He
has become That, the unuttered, the moveless, the illuminator even of
III-23. The Principle whose sole proof is one’s experience of It – he
has remained as That.
III-24. That which is unborn, deathless, beginningless and the First
immaculate state, whole and impartite – he has remained as That; a state
subtler than that of the sky. In a moment, he has become the hallowed
IV-1. Has the Jivanmukta characteristics like the
power to fly in space, etc., ? If so, great sage, it is not present in
the perfected man (described above).
IV-2. O Brahmin, a non-knower of the Self, still in bondage, achieves
(the powers) to fly in space, etc., by virtue of (specific) substances,
incantations, practices and potencies of time.
IV-3. This is not the concern of the Self-knower. One having
contentment in one’s Self never hankers after (the phenomena of)
IV-4. Whatever objects are present in the world are (held to be) of
the stuff of nescience. How can the great Yogin, who has dispelled
nescience, plunge into them ?
IV-5. Whichever confounded person or man of little understanding
desires the group of Yogic powers achieves them, one by one, through set
practices, instrumental to them.
IV-6. Substances, incantations, actions applied at (the right) time,
yield Yogic powers all right. None of them lifts man to the status of
IV-7. Only influenced by some desire does man work for miraculous
powers. The perfect man, seeking nothing, can have no desire whatsoever.
IV-8. When all desires dry up, O sage, the Self is won. How can the
mindless (sage) desire miraculous powers ?
IV-9. The man liberated in life would feel no surprise were the sun
to radiate cool light, the moon scorching rays or the fire to blaze
IV-10. (The whole world) is superimposed on the supreme Reality, the
Ground, as the snake is on the rope. No curiosity is aroused as regards
these superimposed wonders.
IV-11. Those indeed who have known what is to be known and shed all
attachments, whose intellect is great, the knots of whose hearts have
been cut, are free, though living in the body.
IV-12. Dead is his mind who is unmoved in joy and sorrow, and whom
nothing jerks out of equality, even as breaths stir not a mighty
IV-13. Dead is the mind of one who is undisturbed by danger,
resourcelessness, energy, hilarity, dullness, or great rejoicing.
IV-14. The destruction of mind is twofold, determinate and
indeterminate. In (the state of) liberation in life it is determinate;
in that of disembodied liberation it is indeterminate.
IV-15. The presence of mind makes for sorrow; its destruction
promotes joy. Attenuate the existent mind and bring about its
IV-16. The nature of mind, know, is folly, O sinless one ! When that
perishes one’s real essence, mindlessness, is (won).
IV-17. The mind of one liberated in life, having qualities like
friendliness, etc., is rich in noble impulses; it is never reborn.
IV-18. This ‘destruction’ of the Jivanmukta’s mind is determinate;
Nidagha, with disembodied liberation comes indeterminate destruction.
IV-19. One liberated in disembodiment is he who realizes the partless
Self; his mind, the abode of all excellent qualities as it was, is
IV-20-21. In that supremely holy, blemishless status of disembodied
liberation, marked by ‘mindlessness’, in that state of indeterminate
destruction of the mind, just nothing remains, neither qualities nor
their absence; neither glory nor its absence; nothing (whatsoever) of
IV-22. Neither sunrise nor sunset; neither sensations of joy or
anger; neither light nor darkness; neither twilight, day nor night;
neither being, non-being, nor centrality marks the status (of
IV-23. The spacious status of those (who are liberated in
disembodiment), who have gone beyond intellect and the pomp of worldly
life, is like the sky, the abode of the winds.
IV-24. The great (Jivanmuktas) whose bodies are the subtle ether
become disembodied there (in the state of disembodied liberation); all
their sufferings are cured; they are immaterial; totally quiescent,
immobilized in bliss, beyond Rajas and Tamas. In that state dissolve the
remnants of their mind.
IV-25. O great sage, Nidagha, rid your mind of all latent tendencies;
concentrate your mind forcefully, and go beyond all mental
IV-26. That eternally self-shining Light, illuminating the world, is
alone the witness of this world, the Self of all, the pure One.
IV-27. As massed Intelligence It is the ground of all beings. That
non-dual Brahman characterised by truth, knowledge, and bliss is the
object of knowledge.
IV-28-29. The sage fulfils his duty with the realization, ‘I am the
one Brahman’; (Brahman is) the ground of all, non-dual, supreme,
eternal, of the essence of being, intelligence, and bliss, beyond the
range of word and mind.
IV-30. There shine not the forms of the moon and the sun; the winds
blow not; and none of the gods (are there). This divinity alone shines
forth as being, pure by itself, free from rajas.
IV-31. The knot of the heart is split; all doubts are cut asunder.
All his actions dwindle when He, who is both here and beyond, is seen.
IV-32. In this body are the birds, called the Jiva and the Lord,
dwelling together. Of them the Jiva eats the fruit of action, not the
IV-33. Alone as the Witness, without participation, the great Lord
shines by Himself. Through Maya is set up the difference between them.
Spirit is other than Its form; as It does not dwindle, the Spirit is
non-different (from all objects).
IV-34. As the unity of the Spirit is established through reasoning
and means of right knowledge, once that unity is comprehensively known,
one no more sorrows; nor is one deluded.
IV-35. Having the certain knowledge, ‘I am the ground of the whole
world, solid Truth and Knowledge’, the sage may dispel (all) sorrow.
IV-36. Those whose flaws have (all) been attenuated realize in their
own bodies the Witness of all, whose essence is self-luminous Being; not
those others who are encompassed by Maya.
IV-37. Knowing Him alone, let the intelligent Brahmana build up
wisdom; let him not dwell on a multitude of words that only makes for
IV-38. Having mastered the knowledge of Brahman let him live in
childlikeness alone. Having mastered both Brahman-knowledge and
childlikeness, the sage possesses the Self.
IV-39. Know the elemental body as the seed of the creeper of samsara
(the transmigratory life) with its immense sprouts, good and evil,
having their potencies latent (in the body).
IV-40. Of this body, the seed is the mind conforming to cravings; it
is a sheath of active and quiescent moods, a casket holding the gem of
IV-41. The tree of the mind has two seeds; one is the vibration of
the vital breath; the other, obstinate imagination.
IV-42. When the vital breath, aroused by nervous contacts, vibrates,
at once the mind is transformed into a mass of sensations.
IV-43. That all-pervading awareness is aroused by the vibration of
the vital breath. It is better to suppress the awareness (of objects);
less harmful is the vibration of the vital breath, etc.
IV-44. For mental peace, the Yogins suppress vital breaths through
breath-control, meditation and practices dictated by reasoning.
IV-45. Know the supreme cause yielding the fruit of mental peace:
(namely) the joyful Self-abidance of cognition that is known as
IV-46. Latent impression is said to consist in the seizing of an
object (by the force of) entrenched imagination, despite all
considerations of cause and effect.
IV-47. Rejecting everything and imagining nothing, either to be
chosen or rejected, the mind remains (in itself); now is the mind
IV-48. Being continuously free from latent impressions, when the mind
ceases to ponder there arises mindlessness that yields supreme
IV-49. When no aspect of objects in the world is imagined how can the
mind be born in the empty sky of the heart ?
IV-50. The conception of a thing’s absence is based on its non-being;
mindlessness is posited with reference to the object-as-such.
IV-51. The mind abiding coolly in itself, after the inner rejection
(of all objects), though in modifications, is (still) held to have the
form of non-being.
IV-52. They indeed are deemed liberated in life whose latent,
unenjoyed, impressions are like the fried seeds, incapable of sprouting
IV-53. Their minds have acquired the form of Sattva; they have gone
beyond the farther shore of knowledge; they are said to be mindless.
With the fall of their bodies they become sky-like.
IV-54. Due to rejection of objects, both the vibrations of vital
breaths and latent impressions swiftly perish as does a tree whose root
is cut off.
IV-55. In this state of cognition, whatever appears either as
experienced before or as altogether new, must be meticulously wiped out
by every one whose knowledge is sound.
IV-56. The vast transmigratory life is (due to) the failure to
obliterate them; on the contrary, liberation is held to be just their
IV-57. Be immaterial (spiritual), rejecting all pleasures and
IV-58. Knowledge depends on the states of objects; one having no
knowledge is non-cognitive, though he performs a hundred actions; he is
held to be non-inert.
IV-59. He is said to be liberated in life, the clear sphere of whose
emotions is not in the least affected by objects; his knowledge is
IV-60. Due to the absence of latent impressions in the mind when
nothing is imagined, it remains steady with cognitions similar to those
of children and the dumb.
IV-61. Now the sage is no longer affected; for he resorts to the vast
intelligent non-knowing (in the objective mode).
IV-62. Through the concentration of modelessness, rejecting all
latent impressions, he becomes one with it; in the Infinite even that is
IV-63. Though standing, walking, touching, smelling, the intelligent
sage, devoid of all clingings, gets rid of (fluctuating) pleasures, and
the cognitions (of the particulars); he is at peace.
IV-64. A shoreless ocean of excellences, he crosses the sea of
sufferings, because he resorts to this vision even in the midst of vexed
IV-65. Devoid of all particular the stainless, pure Being is one vast
essence – That is held to be the abode of (immutable) existence.
IV-66. Rejecting distinctions like the being of time, the being of
instants, the being of entities, be solely devoted to pure Being.
IV-67. Contemplating but one unqualified universal Being, be
omnipresent, full, supremely blissful, filling up all space.
IV-68. The pristine inconceivable Status, without beginning and end,
that remains at the fringe of universal Being, is causeless.
IV-69. Cognitions dissolve there. It remains beyond the possibility
of doubts. A man who reaches That returns to pains no more.
IV-70. It is the cause of all beings; itself has no cause. It is the
quintessence of all essences; nothing is more quintessential that It.
IV-71. In that vast mirror of Intelligence, all these perceptions of
objects are reflected as the trees on the bank are reflected in the
IV-72. That is the pure unobscured Truth of the Self; when that is
known the mind is tranquillised. Having, through knowledge, won Its
essence you become truly free from the fear of samsara.
IV-73. By the application of the remedies mentioned by me for the
causes of suffering, that (supreme) status is attained.
IV-74-75. O knower of Truth ! If by manly endeavour you forcefully
eschew latent impressions and establish yourself, all alone, in that
indestructible status, even for a moment, at the very summit of
universal being, well, at this very moment you achieve it all right;
IV-76. Or, if you sedulously cultivate the status of universal being,
that status you will attain with somewhat greater effort.
IV-77. Nidagha, if you stay meditating on the principle of cognition,
through (still) greater effort you will win that exalted status.
IV-78. Or, sir, if you strive to shed latent impressions (know) that
till the mind is dissolved, the latent impressions, too, are not
IV-79. As long as the latent impressions are not attenuated, the mind
is not tranquillised; as long as the knowledge of truth is not won,
whence can come mental tranquillity ?
IV-80. As long as the mind is not tranquil, Truth cannot be known; so
long as the knowledge of Truth is not won whence can mental tranquillity
IV-81-82. Knowledge of Truth, mind’s destruction, attenuation of
latent impressions – (these) mutually cause one another; they are indeed
hard to accomplish. Therefore, flinging far from you the desire for
enjoyment, cultivate this triad.
IV-83. High-souled one ! Sought for long and simultaneously, the
attenuation of latent impressions, knowledge (of Truth), and the
destruction of the mind are held to prove effective.
IV-84. By means of these three, cultivated aright, the tough knots of
the heart are shattered without residue as are their threads when the
lotus stalks are crushed.
IV-85. Truth-knowers know that breath-control corresponds to the
eschewal of latent impressions; therefore, also, practise this latter
too, by breath control.
IV-86. By eschewing latent impressions the mind ceases to be; also by
obstructing the vibrations of the vital breath (it does so); do (the one
or the other) as you choose.
IV-87. By the steady practice of breath-control, the exercise of
reasoning taught by the teacher, the practice of Yogic postures and the
regulation of diet, the vibration of breath is obstructed.
IV-88. Through behaviour without attachment, avoidance of
contemplation of birth (and empirical life) and the perception of the
decline of the body, latent impressions cease to operate.
IV-89. The vibration of the vital breath is indeed the same as mind’s
vibration. The intelligent man should strive hard to conquer vibrations
of the vital breath.
IV-90. Without sound reasoning it is impossible to conquer the mind.
Resorting to pure cognition and rejecting attachment, be steady.
IV-91. O great-souled one ! Abide solely in the heart, contemplating
without conceptions the pristine, single, matchless and indubitable
status of cognition without objects; but perform action, having achieved
the status of inactivity in the blaze of tranquil glory.
IV-92. The man who, through ratiocination, in however small a
measure, has slain his mind has achieved the object of his life.
V-1. He is said to be dead whose mind is not given
over to investigation when he walks or stands; when he is awake or
V-2. Know the Spirit-in-Itself to be of the nature of the light of
right knowledge. It is fearless; neither subjugated nor depressed.
V-3. The knower digests (whatever) food he eats – (whether it is)
impure, unwholesome, defiled through contact with poison, well-cooked or
stale, as though it were ‘sweet’ (i.e. a hearty meal).
V-4. The (wise) know liberation to be the renunciation of (all)
attachment: non-birth results from it. Give up attachment to objects; be
liberated in life, O sinless one !
V-5. Attachment is held to be the impure impressions causing
reactions like joy and indignation when the objects sought after are
present or absent.
V-6. Pure is the impression latent in the bodies of the liberated in
life which does not lead to rebirth and is untainted by elation or
V-7. O Nidagha ! Pains do not depress you; joys do not elate you;
abandoning servitude to desires, be unattached.
V-8. ‘Undetermined by space and time, beyond the purview of ‘is’ and
‘is not’, there is but Brahman, the pure indestructible Spirit,
quiescent and one; there is nothing else’.
V-9. Thus thinking, with a body at once present and absent, be
(liberated), the silent man, uniform, with quiescent mind delighting in
V-10. There is neither mind -stuff nor mind; neither nescience nor
Jiva. Manifest is the one Brahman alone, like the sea, without beginning
V-11. The illusory perception of mind, etc., continues as long as the
I-sense is bound up with the body, objects are mistaken for the Self,
and the sense of possession, expressed as ‘this is mine’, persists.
V-12. Sage ! Illusory perceptions of mind, etc., vanish for one who,
through introversion, internally burns up, in the fire of the Spirit,
the dry grass that is this three-fold world.
V-13. I am the Self that is the Spirit; I am impartite. I have
neither cause not effect. Remember your vast (infinite) form; through
memory, do not be finitized.
V-14. By means of the mantra (incantation) of the spiritual science,
contemplated within, the deadly disease of craving dwindles as does mist
V-15. (The sages) hold that the best (form of) renunciation, namely
that of latent impressions, by virtue of knowledge, is the status of
Aloneness, as it is pure universal Being.
V-16. Where latent impressions remain in solution there is ‘deep
sleep’; it does not make for perfection. Where the impressions are
seedless, there is ‘the Fourth’ that yields perfection.
V-17. Even a very small residue of latent impressions, of fire, debt,
disease and adversaries, of attachment, enmity and poison affects one
V-18. With the seeds of latent impressions consumed, and conformed to
universal Being, with or without a body, one no more partakes of
V-19. The decision, ‘This is not Brahman’, is the sum total of
nescience, whose extinction consists in (the opposite) decision, ‘this
V-20. Brahman is Spirit, Brahman is the world. Brahman is the
congregation of beings, Brahman is myself, Brahman is the adversary of
the Spirit, Brahman is the allies and friends of the Spirit.
V-21. Once it is realized that Brahman is all, man is Brahman indeed
! One experiences the omnipresent Spirit that is peace.
V-22. When the mind, the guide of unregenerate senses, ceases to
operate in regard to the alien, the immaculate, all-pervading awareness
(that remains), the Brahman-Intelligence, am I.
V-23. Resort to that intelligent Self, having discarded all
speculations, all curiosity, all vehemence of feelings.
V-24. Thus intelligent beings, with full knowledge, equanimous, with
minds rid of all attachment, neither applaud nor condemn either life or
V-25-26. O Brahmin, the vital breath has the ceaseless power of
vibration; it always moves. In this body with its ins and outs, this up
going vital breath is placed above; the down breath too is similar; only
it is stationed below.
V-27. That best breath control that operates in the expert, whether
awake or asleep – listen to (an account of) that for better being.
V-28. Puraka is the contact of the body with the up-breaths that move
forwards (from the nostrils) through the space of twelve
V-29. Apana (the down-breath) is the moon that keeps the body in
well-being, O well-disciplined sage ! The up-breath is the sun or the
fire which internally warms the body.
V-30. Resort to the spiritual identity of the down-and-up breaths
that dwells near the point where the up-breath dwindles and the
V-31. Resort to that spiritual, impartite Principle when the
down-breath has set and, for a moment, the up-breath has not yet arisen.
V-32. Resort to that spiritual impartite Principle, at the tip of the
nose where the breaths revolve, before the down-breath sets while the
up-breath has done so.
V-33. These three worlds are only an appearance, neither existent nor
non-existent; (the consequent) renunciation of all concern with an
other, the wise maintain, is right knowledge.
V-34. Noble Brahmin ! Even this appearance is distorted by the mirror
of the mind. Therefore, giving up that, too, be rid of all appearances.
V-35. Uprooting this fearful demon of the mind, detrimental to the
essence of steadiness, remain what you are; be steadfast.
V-36. The Spirit that is beyond cause and effect and is likened to
the (boundless) sky is incapable of confrontation by any (real) object;
it remains at the end of all mental processes.
V-37. The satisfaction (felt) at the moment of desire is caused by
that very desire. This satisfaction lasts only till discontent (sets
in); therefore, reject desire.
V-38. Reduce desire to desirelessness; let conceptions cease; let
mind grow into mindlessness in the process of your life without
V-39. Acting through sense organs, free from (the force) of latent
impulses, like the sky, you would not alter though there be a thousand
V-40. Due to the activity and the inactivity of the mind does
empirical life start and subside. Through the suppression of latent
impulses and the vital breath, reduce the mind to inactivity.
V-41. Due to the activity and inactivity of the vital breaths does
empirical life start and subside. Through drill and application, reduce
it to inactivity.
V-42. Due to the active and passive phases of ignorance do activities
get started and cease. Dissolve it (ignorance) forcefully by winning a
teacher and the instructions of the Shastras.
V-43. By a mere quiver of the non-objective knowledge or by the
suppression of vital breaths is mind reduced to mindlessness; that is
the supreme status.
V-44. Through the perception of Brahman, infallibly directed to it
(bliss), behold that real bliss occasioned by the visioning of the
knowable (as Brahman).
V-45. That indeed is the non-factitious bliss which the mind does not
reach; it is free from decline and growth; it neither rises nor sets.
V-46. The mind of the knower is not called mind; mind indeed is the
Truth of Spirit. Therefore, in the Fourth state, it transcends that
V-47. Having renounced all mental constructions, equable, and with a
quiescent mind, be a sage, wedded to the Yoga of renunciation,
possessing both knowledge and freedom.
V-48. The supreme Brahman is that which conforms to no act of
mentation. (It is what remains) when mental activities completely die
down and all masses of latent impulses have been liquidated.
V-49. By securing right knowledge, and by unremitting concentration,
those who become enlightened in the wisdom of the Upanishads are the
Sankhyas and the others are the Yogins.
V-50. Those are the Yogins, versed in Yoga, who, after the quiescence
of the breaths through ascetic practices, achieve the status above
sufferings, beginningless and endless.
V-51. What is required to be won by all is the uncaused and still
status; the contemplation of the one changeless Real, the control of
breaths, the dwindling of the mind.
V-52. When one of them is perfected, it helps perfect the others
(also). The vital breaths and mind of living beings are all concomitant.
V-53. Like the container and the content they perish when only one is
present. Through self-destruction they produce that best of products,
V-54. If, remaining steady, you reject all this by understanding,
then, on the cessation of the I-sense, you yourself are the supreme
V-55. There is but one great Spirit, which is called the Being; it is
flawless, even, pure, free from the I-sense.
V-56. It shines forth but once, the pure, the ever risen, the same.
It is described by many names, as Brahman, the supreme Self, etc.
V-57. O Nidagha, knowing for creation ‘I am That’, having done what
had to be accomplished, I never think of the past or the future.
V-58. I cling wholly to the vision that is present here (and now).
‘This have I won today; I shall achieve this beautiful’ (thing).
V-59. I laud not; neither do I condemn. Nothing other than the self
is anywhere. The gaining of the good does not gladden me; evil betiding
me does not sadden me.
V-60. Sage, the waverings of my mind have been totally stilled; it is
rod of all sorrow. It is cured of all wantings. It is tranquil.
Therefore I am hale, and untrammelled.
V-61. ‘This is a friend; that is a foe; this is mind; that is a
stranger’ – this sort of knowledge does not occur to me, O Brahmin; no
affection touches me.
V-62. Rid of all latent impressions, the mind is liberated from old
age and death. Mind with latent impressions inherent in it is knowledge.
What is to be known is the mind rid of all latent impressions.
V-63. When the mind is rejected, this duality on all sides is
dissolved; but remains the tranquil supreme One, pure and untrammelled.
V-64. The endless, unborn, unmanifest, unageing, tranquil, unlapsing,
non-dual, beginningless and endless which (nevertheless) is the first
V-65. One, devoid of beginning and end, wholly spirit, pure,
pervasive, subtler far than the sky; thou art that Brahman indubitably.
V-66. Undetermined by space, time, etc.; superlatively pure, ever
arisen, omnipresent, this one End is all-in-all; be thou that pure
V-67. ‘All is this tranquil one, devoid of beginning, middle and end.
All is unborn, both Being and non-being' – so thinking, be happy.
V-68. I am not bound nor liberated. I am indeed the untrammelled
Brahman. I am free from duality. I am being, Intelligence, bliss.
V-69. Keeping far away the entire multitude of objects, be you ever
devoted to the Self, your mind all cooled.
V-70. ‘This is fine; this is not ! -- such (feeling) is the seed of
your extended sorrow. When that is burned in the fire of impartiality,
where is the occasion for sorrow ?
V-71. First augment wisdom by means of familiarity with the Shastras
and by seeking the company of the holy.
V-72. The true, real and ultimate Brahman, superlatively pure,
eternal, without beginning and end, is the cure for all forms of
V-73. So also is It neither coarse nor spaced; neither tangible nor
visible; It is tasteless and scentless; unknowable and peerless.
V-74. Well disciplined (sage) ! For achieving liberation, one should
meditate on the bodiless Self that is Brahman - Being consciousness and
Bliss without end – as ‘I am (That)’.
V-75. Concentration is the origination of knowledge in regard to the
unity of the Supreme and the Jiva. The Self, verily, is eternal,
omnipresent, immutable and flawless.
V-76. Being (but) one, through Maya it splits up; not in Its essence.
Therefore the non-dual alone is; no manifold, no empirical life (is
V-77. Just as space is called ‘Pot-space’ (and) ‘great space’, so,
due to delusion, is the self called Jiva and Ishvara in two ways.
V-78. When the all-pervading spirit shines always without a break in
the mind of the Yogin then one becomes one’s Self.
V-79. Verily, when one beholds all beings in one’s own Self, and
one’s Self in all beings, one becomes Brahman.
V-80. In the state of concentration, atoned with the Supreme, one
beholds no beings; one then is the Alone.
V-81. The first plane, generating the desire for liberation, is
marked by the practice (of discipline) and detachment due to intimacy
with the Shastras and the company of the holy.
V-82. The second is marked by investigation; the third by
contemplation with (all) its accessories; the fourth is the solvent as
it consists in the dissolution of latent impressions.
V-83. The fifth is the rapturous; it is purely cognitive. This is the
station of the Liberated-in-life who is, as it were, half awake and half
V-84. The sixth plane is non-cognitive. It is the station similar to
deep sleep, having the nature of pure and massive bliss.
V-85. The seventh plane is (marked by) equability, utter purity,
tenderness; it is indeed unqualified liberation, the quiescent Fourth
V-86. The transcendent state beyond the Fourth, Nirvana in its
essence, is the transcendent and developed seventh plane; it does not
come within the purview of mortals.
V-87. The first three constitute but the wakeful life; the fourth is
called the dream (state) where the world is regrettably dream-like.
V-88. The fifth, conforming to massive bliss, is styled deep sleep.
In contrast the sixth which is non-cognitive is named the Fourth State.
V-89. The most excellent seventh plane is the state beyond the
Fourth, beyond the range of mind and words, and identified with the
V-90. If due to the withdrawal (of the cognitive organs) into (one’s
self) no object is perceived., (one) is liberated, indeed, indubitably
by that mighty sameness (of vision).
V-91. ‘I die not; neither do I live; being preponderantly
non-existent, I am existent neither. ‘I am nothing (but) Spirit’, so
thinking the intelligent Jivanmukta sorrows not.
V-92. ‘Stainless am I; unageing and unattached, with latent
impressions all tranquillised. I am impartite, (the veritable)
Spirit-sky’, so thinking he sorrows not.
V-93. ‘Rid of the I-sense, pure, awake, unageing, immortal peaceful
(am I), all appearances have been quietened for me’, so thinking he
V-94. ‘I am one with Him who dwells at the tips of grass, in the sky,
in the Sun, in man, the mountain, and the gods’, so thinking he sorrows
V-95. Discarding all mental constructions about objects, rising well
above them, dwell on the thought ‘I, the free, am the supreme Brahman
V-96. Beyond the purview of words, rid of the predicament of
hankering after objects, unagitated even by the flavour of climatic
bliss, he delights in the Self by himself.
V-97. Renouncing all actions, ever content, independent, neither by
virtue, sin nor aught else is he stained.
V-98. Just as a mirror is not stained by reflections, so is the
b-Knower inwardly unstained by actions’ fruits.
V-99. Freely moving amidst the masses, he knows neither pains nor
pleasures when his body is tortured or honoured, as if these are
directed to (one’s) reflections.
V-100. Beyond praise and change, recognising neither worship nor its
object, at once conforming and indifferent to all codes of etiquette,
V-101. Let him give up his body either in a holy spot or in the hut
of an eater of dog’s flesh: Once knowledge is won, one becomes Jnanin (a
knower) of Brahman, free from all latent impressions of Karma.
V-102. The cause of bondage is mental construction; give that up.
Liberation comes through the absence of mental construction; practise it
V-103. In the context of objects, sense-organs and their contact by
wary, perpetually and steadily avoiding states of mental construction.
V-104. Do not succumb to objects; neither identify (yourself) with
the sense-organs. Having renounced all constructions, identify with what
V-105. If anything please you, then in a state of bondage are you in
empirical life; if nothing pleases you, then (indeed) are you liberated
V-106. In the multitude of objects, moving and stationery, extending
from grass, etc.; upto the living bodies, let there be nothing that
gives you pleasure.
V-107. In the absence of the I-sense and its negation, at once
existent and non-existent, what remains unattached, self-same,
superlatively pure, and steadfast is said to be the Fourth.
V-108. That superlatively pure sameness, the quiescent status of
liberation-in-life, the state of the spectator is, inempirical usage,
called the fourth state.
V-109. This is neither wakefulness nor dream, for there is no room
for mental constructions. Neither is this the state of deep sleep; for
no inertness is involved in this.
V-110. This world as it is, is dissolved, and then it is the Fourth
State for those who are tranquillised and rightly awakened; for the
unawakened it stands changeless (as it is in its plurality).
V-111. When the aspect of I-sense is given up, and equability
dominates, and the mind disintegrates, the Fourth State comes on.
V-112. The repudiation of the objective manifold is the doctrine of
the Shastras setting forth the Spirit. Here is neither avidya nor Maya;
this is the tranquil Brahman, unfatigued.
V-113. One is inevitably tranquillised in the clear sky of the
Spirit, known as Brahman whose essence is quietude and equability and
which is resplendent with all powers.
V-114. Giving up everything, be wedded to an immense silence, O
sinless one ! Plunged into Nirvana, lifted above ratiocination, with
mind attenuated and intellect becalmed.
V-115. With a tranquillised mind abide in the Self, like one dumb,
blind and deaf; ever turned inward, superlatively pure, with brimming
V-116. O twice born, perform acts, remaining in deep slumber in
wakefulness itself. Having internally renounced everything, act
externally as occasion arises.
V-117. Mind’s being alone is suffering; the giving up of the mind
alone is joy. Therefore, through non-cognition (of objects) attenuate
the mind in the sky of the Spirit.
V-118. Seeing that the beautiful or the ugly always remains, like a
stone, irremovable – thus, through one’s own effort, is empirical
V-119. What is hidden in the Vedanta, taught in bygone ages, should
not be offered to one who is not established in peace; neither to one
who is not a son or pupil.
V-120. Whoever studies the Annapurnopanishad with the blessing of
(one’s) teacher become a Jivanmukta, and by himself altogether Brahman –
This is the Upanishad.
Om ! O Devas, may we hear with our ears what is
auspicious; May we see with our eyes what is auspicious, O ye worthy of
worship ! May we enjoy the term of life allotted by the Devas, Praising
them with our body and limbs steady ! May the glorious Indra bless us !
May the all-knowing Sun bless us ! May Garuda, the thunderbolt for evil,
bless us ! May Brihaspati grant us well-being ! Om ! Let there be Peace
in me ! Let there be Peace in my environment ! Let there be Peace in the
forces that act on me !
Here ends the Annapurnopanishad, as contained in the
Translated by Dr. A. G. Krishna Warrier
Published by The Theosophical Publishing House, Chennai